People are different in all that they are doing, this difference arise from their personal abilities to learn, abilities to think logically and solve problems quickly and right, understand the world and people around, and to set concepts, compilations, goals, etc. This impressive list of abilities leads to the concept of intelligence. Intelligence is embodied in the reality of the person’s abilities in subjective mind of self-improvement, which is reflected in the already formed the quantitative and qualitative possibilities and abilities of the thinking process: the attention, imagination, memory. These thinking abilities form the horizon, in turn, that is based on the knowledge to show the attention and imagination of the person to solve problems that influence the promotion to the goal, turning with minimal losses and errors.
What are the pros and cons of using each theory to define intelligence?
Psychometric theories of intelligence are ones that argue that individual differences in human cognition and mental abilities can be adequately evaluated by special tests. Proponents of psychometric theory believe that people are born with varying intellectual capacity, just as they are born with different physical characteristics, such as height and eye color. They also claim that any social programs will not turn people with various mental faculties to intellectually equal individuals (Gardner, 2011). Among these theories are: two-factor theory of intelligence developed by Charles Spearman; the theory of primary mental abilities and the cubic structure model of intelligence. These theories argue that intelligence is the best criterion for determining a person’s success in school and later at work, it also identifies the potential for divorce, exclusion from school, unemployed status, or the appearance of illegitimate children. However, social interaction studies and the relationship of various factors dictate against such a conclusion. It is not proven whether the cause or the result of the phenomena of intelligence level. It is possible that some other factors are contributing to the achievement of the desired results and high levels of IQ tests. For example, if the person wants to achieve the position that needs a higher IQ level, it means that the one need the appropriate level of intelligence, however, the decreased level of intelligent is determined by the success of the efforts made for work effectively and efficiently, to provide social support and expertise. This is the main limitation of psychometric theories of intelligence.
Cognitive-psychological theory suggests that the level of human intelligence is determined by the efficiency and speed of information processing. The adherents of this theory view intelligence as a process, not an innate quality (Kaufman, Kaufman, & Plucker, 2013). This process consists of a mental representation of the problem, lifting all related information and think through solutions. Thus, this theory is not only emphasizes the need for experience in achieving success in life, but not completely rule out a certain relationship between intelligence and experience. However, according to the empirical studies speed parameters may not be used for diagnostic intelligence, and only a small part of the individual differences in intellectual activity may be explained by the influence of the processing speed.
Multiple intelligence theories, these theories have gained worldwide recognition as one of the most innovative theories of knowledge of human intelligence. The theory of multiple intelligences confirms that people think and learn in many different images. According to these theories, there are three different types of intelligence. The first type of intelligent determines the analytical intelligence that is described in discussion abilities of the person. The second type of intelligence is creativity and it demonstrates the ability of a definite person to solve current and new problems on the basis of gained experience and practice. Practical intelligence, that is the third type of the intelligence, describes a person’s ability to solve day-to-day problems effectively and efficiently.
Which theory do you believe is the best for determining intelligence? Why? Which type of intelligence(s) do \ they possess? Why?
I think that the most complex theory of intelligence is psychometric-biological-social one (hierarchical) that was developed by British psychologist Hans Eysenck. This theory applies all the findings that were made by the previous researches and gave the complex understanding of the intelligence, its development and recognition. It shows that the intelligence level depends from the different factors. Scientist argues that the level of biological intelligence is very important, because it forms the preconditions of the further development of the person. Psychometric intelligence is developed due to the personal characteristics of the person, his/her preferences, education, principles, goals, etc. Social intelligence is determined through the socialization level of the definite person and is fully influenced by the surrounding environment. Therefore, the hierarchical theory possesses three intelligence types: biological, psychometric, social.
Why is assessing a child’s intelligence important (or not!)?
Conducting tests of intelligence for children has become a phenomenon quite common. By defining the intelligence quotient in children, it can be found the most appropriate way for their potential understanding and help to get the best effects in the exercises and assignments. Making the tests for children in order to discover their intelligent level can prevent for a complex understanding of the abilities and talents of a child and as a result to create the surrounding environment that will help a child to develop in the most effective way.
Intelligence is the key point that defines who is the person and what is he/she doing in this world, how interacts with others, what is thinking and what is dreaming about. Intelligence is one of the determinants of the person’s success, which can be seen in his/her biological, psychometric and social intelligence. It is also necessary to remember that defining specific talents through the intelligence level can help children to develop in the most appropriate way with the simultaneous development of personal talents.