Organizational Behavior

Question 1

The theory of motivation (pyramid) developed by Maslow has the idea that human behavior is determined by the needs of a range of base, which can be arranged in a hierarchy. In terms of Maslow, these needs are universal, and unite for all people, regardless of skin color, ethnicity, lifestyle, habits, mannerisms, and other external manifestations (Maslow, & Stephens, 2000). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs have built on the principle of urgency satisfaction.

At the base of the pyramid lie the so-called basic needs: physiological needs and the need for security. The social and esteem needs were failed to meet by the Shank’s old boss, because, the need for belonging was destroyed. The need to belong was totally ignored by her old boss, because the old boss did not pay attention to Shank as a personality, however, thought about her as a part of mechanism that can be easily changed. The esteem needs were not meet, because Shank did not think that she is doing something meaningful for the organization. This misunderstanding of the significance of the Shank’s work made her feel rather demotivated. Social and esteem needs of Shank were not met because of the attitude of her boss to the work performance. In order to get through such situation the boss should regularly communicate with the subordinates, their work should be assessed and employees should be apprised for the tasks they have done. It should be the communication from two sides with the feedback and encouragement.

Question 2

Theory of Equity was developed by John Adams, and it argues that the individual subjectively determines the ratio of the received reward to effort spent, and then correlates it with the remuneration of other people who perform similar work (Pinder, 2008). If the comparison is imbalance or injustice, that person believes that the same work another individual received a higher reward, and then raises psychological stress. The Flight 001 can start to feel dissatisfaction, become demotivated, if the person feels that he/she is working as hard as other, however, is underpaid. Such situation can be solved only with the increase of the person’s salary till the sum that the people, that the person comparing him/herself with, have. It is necessary to note, that theory of Equity means not the difference of input and output in performance, however, it shows how people compere themselves with others. According to the expectations theory of motivation, motivational effect has not the needs of the people, and the thought process in which the individual assesses the reality of achieving the objectives and obtain the desired reward. Expectancy theory argues dependence efforts the individual, from the awareness of the reality of their achievement of the objectives and the desirability of achieving it. This means that from the performance employees are waiting for the results of their work, from the results they are waiting for the compensation, and with the compensation they are waiting encouragement. Therefore, in order to increase motivation, manager should think about motivation by salary and by psychological encouragement.

Question 3

Herzberg’s two factor theory is based on the understanding of two factors: motivation and dissatisfaction. Motivation factors are aimed to encourage employees to perform effectively, however, dissatisfaction decrease is the aim of managers to avoid vexing at work. Motivation factors are seen in the personal achievements of employees, their self-improvement and development. Hygiene factors include corporate culture, company’s policies, etc. it is necessary to note that Flight 001 has most of the factors that are described in the Herzberg’s two factor theory. The tolerant and open door culture do not allow two emerge the dissatisfaction. As a result, employees are communicative, have good relations in the collective and with management. This was also caused by the strict hiring policy of the company that allow for work only those people who will work in harmony with others. This results in a friendly organizational culture that creates comfortable working condition for employees. High involvement of management into the communication process with employees creates specific motivation environment, that is recognized by the appreciation and encouragement.